Prostate

Prostate

The prostate is a walnut-shaped gland that sits underneath a man’s bladder and wraps around the urethra. Prostate problems include infection, enlargement or cancer, but solutions and survival rates are improving.

The prostate gland’s main function is to add fluid to sperm to form semen. Although the prostate starts out small, it typically grows as a man ages. Prostate growth is known as benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH. Over time, BPH puts pressure on the urethra, leading to urinary problems.

Prostatitis is swelling of the prostate gland that is often caused by bacteria. The condition can come on quickly (acute prostatitis) and usually clears up with antibiotics. However, it can sometimes continue long term, in which case it’s called chronic prostatitis.

Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men, affecting 1 in 7 during their lifetime. Most prostate cancer cases are diagnosed later in life.

Prostate cancer can be found with a PSA test, which measures the level of a protein called prostate specific antigen (PSA) in a man’s blood. At one time, men over age 50 were advised to have a PSA test annually. Yet this test can often produce false positive results, because PSA levels can also rise from BPH and other non-cancerous prostate conditions. Today, cancer organizations recommend that men talk to their doctor about the benefits and risks before having this test.

Prostate cancer symptoms include trouble urinating, blood in the urine, pain in the back or hips, and difficulty getting or sustaining an erection. To diagnose prostate cancer, the doctor will remove a sample of tissue during a biopsy. Once that tissue is examined, doctors assign the prostate cancer a Gleason Score and a stage, which indicate the severity and progression of the disease.

Doctor and patient

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Is There a Normal PSA Level?

Is There a Normal PSA Level?

· · Prostate

There is no universally accepted “normal” PSA level. In the past, a PSA of 4 nanograms per milliliter of blood (ng/ml) or less was considered normal; however, more recent studies have shown that some men with PSAs below 4 have prostate cancer and some men with PSAs over 4 do  … Read More

How to Avoid Prostate Cancer

How to Avoid Prostate Cancer

· · Prostate

Scientists don’t know exactly what causes prostate cancer and there is no one answer to how to avoid prostate cancer. Researchers, however, have studied certain preventive measures and determined they have the potential to reduce the risk of prostate cancer. They have evaluated other measures and found that the evidence  … Read More

What Causes Prostate Cancer?

What Causes Prostate Cancer?

· · Prostate

The glandular cells of the prostate play an important role in reproduction, producing the fluids that help make up semen. These tiny cells also serve as the birthplace for nearly all prostate cancers. Genes in these cells slowly mutate, leading to the formation of abnormal cells. The cells proliferate and  … Read More

What Is the Gleason Score?

What Is the Gleason Score?

· · Prostate

Anyone who has been faced with the prospect of prostate cancer will encounter the phrase “Gleason score.” And what is the Gleason score? Doctors use it to help them predict the risk of how aggressive a prostate cancer may be and how likely it is to spread beyond the prostate  … Read More



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