Tag: psa test

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by cells of the prostate gland that can be detected in blood. Blood PSA levels typically rise in men who have prostate cancer. Since the 1990s, the PSA test has been used, along with the digital rectal exam (DRE), to regularly screen men over age 50 for prostate cancer.

The trouble is, noncancerous prostate conditions such as prostatitis (prostate inflammation) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can also cause a rise in PSA level. Urinary tract infections, prostate surgery, bladder tests, certain medications (such as NSAIDs, statins, and diuretics), and recent ejaculation can also affect PSA test results. The difficulty in distinguishing prostate cancer from these benign conditions can contribute to false positive results, which can lead men to have unnecessary biopsies (the removal of prostate tissue to test for cancer). Some evidence has shown that only 25 percent of men who have undergone a prostate biopsy because of a high PSA level actually have prostate cancer.

Even when a PSA test correctly identifies prostate cancer, it?s hard to know whether that cancer will be life-threatening. Many prostate cancers are slow growing and don?t need treatment. A high PSA level may result in men being treated for cancers they don?t have or that wouldn?t have spread, exposing them to treatment side effects and unnecessary anxiety.

Doctors have also had difficulty agreeing on what constitutes a ?normal? PSA level. In the past, a PSA of 4 nanograms per milliliter of blood (ng/ml) was considered normal. However, more recent students have shown that some men with PSAs below 4 have prostate cancer, while some men with PSA levels over 4 do not have cancer.

As a result, many medical organizations have pulled back on their recommendation that men get routine PSA screening. Most groups agree that screening should be individualized based on a man?s age, risk factors, and overall health.

4. Prostatitis

The term prostatitis describes inflammation of the prostate gland. Unlike other prostatic conditions, prostatitis affects younger and older men alike. It is common, affecting up to 1 in 12 men in their lifetime and keeping urologists busy (it’s responsible for 25 percent of all visits to urology clinics).
In the United

2. Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is the second-most-common cancer in men (after skin cancer) and the second-most-common cause of cancer-related death in men (after lung cancer). Latest data from the American Cancer Society: One in nine men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime, and one in 41 will die from

1. Introduction: What Is the Prostate?

Hidden deep within the male pelvis is a small gland about the size of a walnut known as the prostate. The prostate is an essential part of the male reproductive system. But it suffers from a serious design flaw.
Similar to a rubber ring, the prostate surrounds the urethra, the thin,

PSA Lab Test Results: These 10 Factors Can Affect Your Numbers

PSA Lab Test Results: These 10 Factors Can Affect Your Numbers

It’s well known that the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test used to screen for prostate cancer is imprecise. Elevations in PSA may signal prostate cancer, but they also may be due to nonmalignant prostate conditions.

Further complicating the screening process is that several medications and a number of other modifiable factors may

Normal PSA Levels by Age: A Valid Way to Assess Prostate Cancer Risk?

Normal PSA Levels by Age: A Valid Way to Assess Prostate Cancer Risk?

Other than the fact that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening is a simple blood test, little else about this cornerstone of prostate cancer screening is simple. That includes the question of whether there are normal PSA levels by age. Generally, your risk of having prostate cancer increases along with your PSA

Late-Stage Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer Increases

Recent data (Cancer, May 22) points to a rise in the diagnosis of late-stage prostate cancer. In the study, diagnoses in which the cancer had already spread to other parts of the body increased from 7.8 per 100,000 in 2010 to 9.2 per 100,000 in 2014.

Reza Mehrazin, MD, assistant professor

News Briefs: Prostate Cancer Screening; Kidney Tumor Surgery

Prostate Cancer Screening Has Minimal Effect on Mortality
Prostate cancer screening using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test has no effect on overall mortality, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis published in BMJ in September. Furthermore, the screening is associated with biopsy-related and cancer treatment–related complications that include sepsis, urinary

5. Reducing the Risk of Common Conditions

Chronic diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, stroke, and diabetes represent a major health problem in the United States. They account for approximately 86 percent of all healthcare costs and are frequently associated with a significant reduc-tion in quality of life. The CDC reports that roughly half of

Is There a Normal PSA Level?

Is There a Normal PSA Level?

There is no universally accepted “normal” PSA level. In the past, a PSA of 4 nanograms per milliliter of blood (ng/ml) or less was considered normal; however, more recent studies have shown that some men with PSAs below 4 have prostate cancer and some men with PSAs over 4 do

4. Prostatitis

The term prostatitis describes inflammation of the prostate gland. Unlike other prostatic conditions, prostatitis affects younger and older men alike. It is common, affecting up to 1 in 12 men in their lifetime and keeping urologists busy (it’s responsible for 25 percent of all visits to urology clinics).
In the United

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