It’s well known that the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test used to screen for prostate cancer is imprecise. Elevations in PSA levels may signal prostate cancer, but they also may be due to nonmalignant prostate conditions. Further complicating the screening process is that several medications and a number of other modifiable … Read More
prostate cancer symptoms
The walnut-shaped prostate gland is part of a man?s reproductive system. Its primary role is to add fluid to sperm to produce semen. Just as cells elsewhere in the body can turn cancerous, the cells of the prostate gland can become prone to cancer.
Some men will have no prostate cancer symptoms, especially when the disease is in its early stages. Others will experience a number of different symptoms. Many of the signs involve urination. Urinary prostate cancer symptoms can be similar to symptoms of noncancerous prostate growth, including difficulty starting urination or emptying the bladder. Some men experience a weaker than usual urine stream. Prostate cancer can also reveal itself as blood in the urine.
Some prostate cancer symptoms become apparent during intercourse. Men may notice blood in their semen, or discomfort when they ejaculate. They may also have pain in the pelvic area.
When prostate cancer spreads, it sometimes reaches the bones. Metastatic prostate cancer symptoms can include pain in the bones, particularly in the bones of the pelvis, hips, and spine.
Men who have prostate cancer symptoms should see a urologist or other health professional for testing. Prostate cancer is diagnosed by removing a piece of tissue from the prostate gland?a procedure called a biopsy. Typically, several pieces of tissue are taken from different areas of the prostate. The tissue samples are sent to a pathology lab for examination. Prostate cancer is graded using a system called the Gleason score, which indicates how likely the cancer is to spread. Prostate cancers with a lower Gleason score are less likely to spread, while cancers with a higher score are more likely to spread. The Gleason score, along with the stage of the cancer, helps the doctor determine which treatment will be most appropriate and effective.
PSA is prostate specific antigen, a protein made by prostate cells that shows up in your blood with a PSA blood test. PSA levels increase with prostate cancer, so PSA has been used as a screening test for prostate cancer for many years. A cancer screening test is a test … Read More
If your doctor has determined that you’re experiencing prostate cancer symptoms and that your otherwise normal PSA levels are elevated, he likely will order a biopsy of tissue from the prostate gland. Your doctor may elect to biopsy your prostate based on whether or not you have possible symptoms of … Read More
Despite the fact that there are roughly 221,000 new cases of prostate cancer diagnosed in American men each year, many of them have no prostate cancer symptoms. In these asymptomatic men, prostate cancer is often detected during routine screening with tests such as a digital rectal exam, urinalysis, and possibly … Read More
The vast majority of prostate cancers originate in the glandular cells of the prostate and are called adenocarcinomas. Prostate cancer is second only to skin cancer as the most common cancer seen in men in the United States. While most men do not die from prostate cancer, it is the … Read More
For many types of cancer, having a family history of the disease places you at a greater risk of developing the cancer yourself. So, if you’re a man with a close relative who had prostate cancer, you might be bothered by a lingering question: Is prostate cancer hereditary? No one … Read More
What are the risk factors for prostate cancer? It’s a question that remains unanswered despite a growing body of research identifying risk factors and prevention strategies. Scientists do know that prostate cancer symptoms occur when changes or mutations in the DNA of prostatic cells cause abnormal proliferation of those cells, … Read More
There is no universally accepted "normal" PSA level. In the past, a PSA of 4 nanograms per milliliter of blood (ng/ml) or less was considered normal; however, more recent studies have shown that some men with PSAs below 4 have prostate cancer and some men with PSAs over 4 do … Read More
In today’s age, the term “digital” may make you think electronic or photographic. But, alas, digital here refers to a finger, so a digital rectal exam (DRE) is an examination of your rectum with the physician’s gloved and lubricated index finger. Both men and women undergo a digital rectal exam, … Read More
Prostate screening traditionally has focused on two methods: the digital rectal exam (DRE) and prostate specific antigen, or PSA testing. Researchers have always worked toward improving the accuracy and reliability of both modalities. Along the way, PSA test options have been surfacing. New methods seek to clarify diagnoses in men … Read More