Up to 60 percent of adults have had nocturnal leg cramps. These recurrent, painful cramps usually strike the calf muscles and can cause frequent awakenings and severe insomnia. They are more common in people aged 50 years and older. If you’ve suffered through them, read on to learn how to
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic or inherited disease of the mucus and sweat glands. It affects approximately 30,000 Americans, leading to chronic health problems and premature death. Advances in treatment, however, have dramatically improved outcomes in the past 20 years.
In people with cystic fibrosis, or CF, the mucus produced by
As you have learned in this report, prostate disease and treatments for prostate disease can cause troublesome symptoms, the most common of which are erectile dysfunction (ED) and urinary problems, including incontinence. These symptoms are not only inconvenient and unpleasant but they can also significantly interfere with everyday life and
Swollen feet can be a normal inflammatory reaction due to overuse or a strain—the result of taking a bad step, for example. But swollen feet can also indicate a life-threatening medical condition, such as congestive heart failure. It’s important to determine whether there’s a known cause (like stepping in a
As you have learned, the digestive system exists to extract the nutrients we need from food. In the modern world, where food is abundant and choices abound, eating too much is common. When we eat more than we need, the body stores the extra calories as fat. Fat isn’t all
Located in the upper-right side of the abdomen, the liver is your body’s largest organ, and a true workhorse. It converts nutrients to products the body can use, stores these nutrients, and delivers them where needed. It also stores iron, manufactures choles-terol, makes bile to digest fats, removes toxins from
The liver doesn’t actually contain nerves, so the organ itself can’t feel pain. Even so, the sensation of liver pain can occur because the layer of tissue that surrounds the organ—it’s called Glisson’s Capsule—does contain nerves. Any diseases affecting the liver that increase its size can result in what feels
Gallstones are solid deposits in the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ that sits beneath the liver. The gallbladder has a simple function: to store and concentrate bile, a digestive enzyme made by the liver. In the United States, between 1 and 3 percent of adults develop gallstones each year and
People are understandably concerned when told they need a biopsy. What is a biopsy? What is the purpose? How is it performed? Who does it? Where? Does it hurt? What are the risks? What will the results mean? What happens next? Here are the answers to those questions and more.
For better or worse, alcohol has been part of our cultural history for thousands of years. America’s most commonly used drug brings pleasure to some, grief to others; health risks for most people, health benefits for a few. It’s not going away—in fact, a 2017 study estimated that one in